JavaScript 按键事件、KeyCode 键盘键码、鼠标键值及其简单应用

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在前端开发中,经常会用到对输入情况的检测,此时使用 JavaScript 技术更为简单方便,针对常用按键事件、鼠标事件、键盘键码及应用做个简单的汇总。

按键事件

键盘事件,在 basebdobrframeframesetheadhtmliframemetaparamscriptstyletitle 元素里都无效。

常见事件

  • onkeydown:按下键盘按键时
  • onkeypress:按下或按住键盘按键时
  • onkeyup:放开键盘按键时
  • onclick:鼠标点击一个对象时
  • ondblclick:鼠标双击一个对象时
  • onmousedown:鼠标被按下时
  • onmousemove:鼠标被移动时
  • onmouseout:鼠标离开元素时
  • onmouseover:鼠标经过元素时
  • onmouseup:释放鼠标按键时

使用范例

<script type="text/javascript">
    $(document).ready(function(){
        $(document).mousemove(function(e){
            $("#mouse span").text("X坐标:"+e.pageX + ", Y坐标:" + e.pageY);
        });
    });
</script>
<p id="mouse">鼠标当前坐标为: <span></span></p>

鼠标键值

常用键值

  • event.button=0:默认,没有按任何按钮。
  • event.button=1:鼠标左键
  • event.button=2:鼠标右键
  • event.button=3:鼠标左右键同时按下
  • event.button=4:鼠标中键
  • event.button=5:鼠标左键和中键同时按下
  • event.button=6:鼠标右键和中键同时按下
  • event.button=7:所有三个键都按下

使用范例

<script>
var whichButton = function (e) {
    // 处理不同的事件模型
    var e = e || window.event;
    var btnCode;

     if ('object' === typeof e) {
        btnCode = e.button;

        switch (btnCode) {
            case 0:
                alert('你按了左键.');
            break;
            case 1:
                alert('你按了中键.');
            break;
            case 2:
                alert('你按了右键.');
            break;
            default:
                alert('未知按键: ' + btnCode);
        }
    }
}
</script>
<button onmouseup="whichButton(event);" oncontextmenu="event.preventDefault();">请点击鼠标...</button>

键盘键码

常用键码

keycode    8 = BackSpace BackSpace
keycode    9 = Tab Tab
keycode   12 = Clear
keycode   13 = Enter
keycode   16 = Shift_L
keycode   17 = Control_L
keycode   18 = Alt_L
keycode   19 = Pause
keycode   20 = Caps_Lock
keycode   27 = Escape Escape
keycode   32 = space space
keycode   33 = Prior
keycode   34 = Next
keycode   35 = End
keycode   36 = Home
keycode   37 = Left
keycode   38 = Up
keycode   39 = Right
keycode   40 = Down
keycode   41 = Select
keycode   42 = Print
keycode   43 = Execute
keycode   45 = Insert
keycode   46 = Delete
keycode   47 = Help
keycode   48 = 0 equal braceright
keycode   49 = 1 exclam onesuperior
keycode   50 = 2 quotedbl twosuperior
keycode   51 = 3 section threesuperior
keycode   52 = 4 dollar
keycode   53 = 5 percent
keycode   54 = 6 ampersand
keycode   55 = 7 slash braceleft
keycode   56 = 8 parenleft bracketleft
keycode   57 = 9 parenright bracketright
keycode   65 = a A
keycode   66 = b B
keycode   67 = c C
keycode   68 = d D
keycode   69 = e E EuroSign
keycode   70 = f F
keycode   71 = g G
keycode   72 = h H
keycode   73 = i I
keycode   74 = j J
keycode   75 = k K
keycode   76 = l L
keycode   77 = m M mu
keycode   78 = n N
keycode   79 = o O
keycode   80 = p P
keycode   81 = q Q at
keycode   82 = r R
keycode   83 = s S
keycode   84 = t T
keycode   85 = u U
keycode   86 = v V
keycode   87 = w W
keycode   88 = x X
keycode   89 = y Y
keycode   90 = z Z
keycode   96 = KP_0 KP_0
keycode   97 = KP_1 KP_1
keycode   98 = KP_2 KP_2
keycode   99 = KP_3 KP_3
keycode 100 = KP_4 KP_4
keycode 101 = KP_5 KP_5
keycode 102 = KP_6 KP_6
keycode 103 = KP_7 KP_7
keycode 104 = KP_8 KP_8
keycode 105 = KP_9 KP_9
keycode 106 = KP_Multiply KP_Multiply
keycode 107 = KP_Add KP_Add
keycode 108 = KP_Separator KP_Separator
keycode 109 = KP_Subtract KP_Subtract
keycode 110 = KP_Decimal KP_Decimal
keycode 111 = KP_Divide KP_Divide
keycode 112 = F1
keycode 113 = F2
keycode 114 = F3
keycode 115 = F4
keycode 116 = F5
keycode 117 = F6
keycode 118 = F7
keycode 119 = F8
keycode 120 = F9
keycode 121 = F10
keycode 122 = F11
keycode 123 = F12
keycode 124 = F13
keycode 125 = F14
keycode 126 = F15
keycode 127 = F16
keycode 128 = F17
keycode 129 = F18
keycode 130 = F19
keycode 131 = F20
keycode 132 = F21
keycode 133 = F22
keycode 134 = F23
keycode 135 = F24
keycode 136 = Num_Lock
keycode 137 = Scroll_Lock
keycode 187 = acute grave
keycode 188 = comma semicolon
keycode 189 = minus underscore
keycode 190 = period colon
keycode 192 = numbersign apostrophe
keycode 210 = plusminus hyphen macron
keycode 211 =
keycode 212 = copyright registered
keycode 213 = guillemotleft guillemotright
keycode 214 = masculine ordfeminine
keycode 215 = ae AE
keycode 216 = cent yen
keycode 217 = questiondown exclamdown
keycode 218 = onequarter onehalf threequarters
keycode 220 = less greater bar
keycode 221 = plus asterisk asciitilde
keycode 227 = multiply division
keycode 228 = acircumflex Acircumflex
keycode 229 = ecircumflex Ecircumflex
keycode 230 = icircumflex Icircumflex
keycode 231 = ocircumflex Ocircumflex
keycode 232 = ucircumflex Ucircumflex
keycode 233 = ntilde Ntilde
keycode 234 = yacute Yacute
keycode 235 = oslash Ooblique
keycode 236 = aring Aring
keycode 237 = ccedilla Ccedilla
keycode 238 = thorn THORN
keycode 239 = eth ETH
keycode 240 = diaeresis cedilla currency
keycode 241 = agrave Agrave atilde Atilde
keycode 242 = egrave Egrave
keycode 243 = igrave Igrave
keycode 244 = ograve Ograve otilde Otilde
keycode 245 = ugrave Ugrave
keycode 246 = adiaeresis Adiaeresis
keycode 247 = ediaeresis Ediaeresis
keycode 248 = idiaeresis Idiaeresis
keycode 249 = odiaeresis Odiaeresis
keycode 250 = udiaeresis Udiaeresis
keycode 251 = ssharp question backslash
keycode 252 = asciicircum degree
keycode 253 = 3 sterling
keycode 254 = Mode_switch

使用 event.ctrlKeyevent.shiftKeyevent .altKey 判断是否按下了 ctrl 键、shift 键以及alt键。

使用范例

<script>
//屏蔽鼠标右键  
function document.oncontextmenu() {
    event.returnValue = false;
}

//屏蔽F1帮助  
function window.onhelp() {
    return false
}

function document.onkeydown() {
    //屏蔽 Alt + ← 方向键 和 屏蔽 Alt + → 方向键
    //注:这还不是真正地屏蔽 Alt + 方向键,因为Alt + 方向键弹出警告框时,按住Alt键不放,用鼠标点掉警告框,这种屏蔽方法就失效了
    if ((window.event.altKey) && ((window.event.keyCode == 37) || (window.event.keyCode==39))){
        alert("不准你使用ALT+方向键前进或后退网页!");
        event.returnValue = false;
    }

    //屏蔽退格删除键、F5 刷新键、Ctrl + R 
    if ((event.keyCode == 8) || (event.keyCode == 116) || (event.ctrlKey && event.keyCode == 82)) {
        event.keyCode = 0;
        event.returnValue = false;
    }

    //屏蔽 F11
    if (event.keyCode == 122) {
        event.keyCode = 0;
        event.returnValue = false;
    }

    //屏蔽 Ctrl + N
    if (event.ctrlKey && event.keyCode == 78) {
        event.returnValue = false;
    }

    //屏蔽 shift + F10
    if (event.shiftKey && event.keyCode == 121) {
        event.returnValue = false;
    }

    //屏蔽 shift 加鼠标左键新开一网页
    if (window.event.srcElement.tagName == "A " && window.event.shiftKey) {
        window.event.returnValue = false;
    }
    
//屏蔽 Alt + F4
    if ((window.event.altKey) && (window.event.keyCode == 115)) {
        window.showModelessDialog("about:blank ", " ", "dialogWidth:1px;dialogheight:1px ");
        return false;
    }
}
</script>

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 本文最后更新于 2019/11/18 17:05:00,可能因经年累月而与现状有所差异

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